In Toronto cognitive behaviour therapy now covers several cognitive-based psychotherapies. Some of them are as follows:
Acceptance and commitment therapy – Abbreviated as ACT, it does not teach you to get rid of unwanted feelings, but rather deal with whatever life throws at you in a healthy way. For instance, grief is something that often accompanies the loss of a loved one. Instead of not thinking about the person who has passed away, acceptance and commitment therapy is about accepting these feelings of sadness and refining your response to make your behavior more ‘valued’. This will help you the next time a similar situation occurs.
Dialectical behavior therapy – Dialectical behavior therapy helps people who have negative feelings such as self-harm and thoughts of suicide. It has been seen that substance abuse is a common response in such situations. Dialectical behavior therapy helps those afflicted to identify the triggers that cause these feelings and work out better responses to them. It has been helpful to victims of sexual abuse and teaches you to distract yourself from negative emotions by indulging in an activity you enjoy, prayer, relaxing and happy thoughts, assessment and management of such feelings (“It is OK to feel this way, because what happened was terrible. But how much longer should I dwell on the past? Isn’t it affecting my ability to live in the present and be happy?”), and taking deep breaths.
Multimodal therapy – This is based on the fact that human beings sense, think, imagine, feel, act and interact. Multimodal therapy is about dealing with each of these modalities. This approach to mental disorder came from Arnold Lazarus, a South African psychologist who also coined the term behavior therapy.
Reality therapy – This is dependent on the three Rs of realism, right-and-wrong and responsibility. In reality therapy, the therapist works closely with you to first establish a good relationship, which paves the way for the following – evaluating current behavior, planning an alternate course of action/behavior when the same or a similar situation occurs, and commitment to what has been mutually agreed upon (it helps to have this in writing) which can also include punishment for not sticking to the plan.
Cognitive processing therapy – This has been found to be effective in treating PTSD or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in combat veterans, rape victims and refugees, who typically experience anger, horror, sadness, shame, fear and guilt. Such people tend to avoid these feelings when they occur, and cognitive processing therapy helps them to process their emotions instead. There are generally some 12 sessions of 1-2 hours each involved in the treatment.
In Ajax cognitive behaviour therapy is much more, but all of them focus on helping you deal with your present line of thinking and formulating better responses to situations.